The physical vapor deposition or PVD is a method where there will be an extreme, electron beam is generated from a filament and navigated via electric and magnetic fields to strike source material, for example is pellets of Au, then vanish it within a vacuum environment is called E-Beam evaporation. There is some point where as the source material is heated by the energy transfer to the surface atoms that will have enough energy to leave the surface. It will traverse the vacuum chamber, at thermal energy not less than 1 eV and can be used to coat a substrate placed above the vaporizing material. 300 mm to 1 meter is the average working distances.
The chamber pressure must be below the point as the thermal energy is low. This is by means of free path is longer than the expanse between the electron beam source and the substrate. The average distance of an atom or molecule can transport in a vacuum chamber is called the free path. This is typically around 3.0 x 10-4 Torr or lower. It materializes before it bumps into the other particle therefore disturbing its course to some degree.
First and foremost, the information on e-beam evaporation systems purpose is to run an e-beam evaporation process at the elevated end of the pressure array to allow a wide beam ion beam source to be employed at the same time for film densification or other property adjustment. The evaporation without ion beam assist can be done at any pressure below. Although the process will always be to increases the pressure due to outgassing of materials within the vacuum chamber.
There are electron e-beam evaporation sources. These are the Single Pocket, Rotary Pocket and Linear Pocket. For more information regarding e-beam evaporation systems, visit this this here www.angstromengineering.com.